Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

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Pipescs
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Re: Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

Post by Pipescs » Thu Dec 30, 2010 6:10 pm

Managed to buy all the things I went for

Now I am machining the frames top notch for the center plate.

As this is a beginners site I thought I would show how I held them down on the TAIG

Leading Truck Notch.jpg
Charlie Pipes
USMC Retired

Current Projects:

2.5 Baldwin 2-4-2/2-4-4/0-4-4 Conversion (What ever)
Little Engines American Restoration
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Pipescs
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Re: Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

Post by Pipescs » Thu Dec 30, 2010 6:13 pm

BEGINNERS QUESTION FOR THE DAY

I have managed over the years to pick up a few end mills. The TAIG will hold 3/8 diameter single and double ended.

I have both two a and four flute mills. As I go out to buy more, what is the difference in the two and four flute? What are their uses?
Charlie Pipes
USMC Retired

Current Projects:

2.5 Baldwin 2-4-2/2-4-4/0-4-4 Conversion (What ever)
Little Engines American Restoration
Bobber Caboose

Andrew Pugh
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Re: Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

Post by Andrew Pugh » Thu Dec 30, 2010 6:24 pm

Pipescs wrote:BEGINNERS QUESTION FOR THE DAY

I have managed over the years to pick up a few end mills. The TAIG will hold 3/8 diameter single and double ended.

I have both two a and four flute mills. As I go out to buy more, what is the difference in the two and four flute? What are their uses?
I believe the major advantage of a 2-flute is that it will cut a slot the same width as the end mill, whereas a 4-flute will cut slightly wider due to deflection of the end mill. The 2-flute will also deflect, but there isn't an adjacent tooth to remove material like there is with a 4-flute.

A 4-flute can also translate faster through the material than a 2-flute, because it has more cutting edges and each takes a smaller 'bite'.

kvom
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Re: Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

Post by kvom » Thu Dec 30, 2010 10:00 pm

I've been advised generally to use 2-flute mills on aluminum and brass, and 4-flute in steel. I'm not sure of the reasoning however.

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Re: Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

Post by Harold_V » Thu Dec 30, 2010 10:31 pm

kvom wrote:I've been advised generally to use 2-flute mills on aluminum and brass, and 4-flute in steel. I'm not sure of the reasoning however.
A great deal depends on the grind of the end mill, for often there are specific grinds for aluminum--more relief and often greater rake.

Rule of thumb is to use two flutes for aluminum, where greater feed rates are the norm---so you have adequate chip clearance. Coarse feeds with multiple toothed end mills often creates a problem whereby chips weld to the flute because they are larger than the allowed relief. Not an issue if you take scratch cuts, but can be a serious issue if you take heavy cuts with serious feed rates.

For machining brass, the most important thing is to use a very sharp end mill---one that has not seen service, especially cutting steel. Once the keen edge is gone, it won't perform well in brass because of its bearing qualities.

Harold
Wise people talk because they have something to say. Fools talk because they have to say something.

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Pipescs
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Re: Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

Post by Pipescs » Thu Dec 30, 2010 11:05 pm

Thanks for the info. I will buy a pair of the two flute for brass and aluminum and a pair of 4 flute for the cold roll.

Do you recommend the HSS, Cobalt or Carbide for the steel?
Charlie Pipes
USMC Retired

Current Projects:

2.5 Baldwin 2-4-2/2-4-4/0-4-4 Conversion (What ever)
Little Engines American Restoration
Bobber Caboose

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Pipescs
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Re: Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

Post by Pipescs » Thu Dec 30, 2010 11:14 pm

Well with the kids and me staying home today and friends bringing their grandkids to visit tonight I did finally get a little accomplished

One aspect of only having a small mill is that I cannot work fast.

Todays accomplishment was on the notching of the frames, getting the material bought for the journal boxes ( I am going with CRS for the Journal Boxes and ordered the Olite Bearings from Enco today ) and cutting the brass for the four Link Brackets. They bolt to the side frames over the top of the center plate
Leading Truck V (2).jpg
They are available from LE as a casting but having not had the best of luck with the smaller castings I decided to make these from Brass Stock. They are not complicated
Leading Truck V (3).jpg
The notched side frames with the brass stock to cut the Link Bracket from.
Leading Truck V.jpg
Charlie Pipes
USMC Retired

Current Projects:

2.5 Baldwin 2-4-2/2-4-4/0-4-4 Conversion (What ever)
Little Engines American Restoration
Bobber Caboose

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Re: Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

Post by Harold_V » Fri Dec 31, 2010 12:14 am

Pipescs wrote:Do you recommend the HSS, Cobalt or Carbide for the steel?
It's not so easy to make a hard recommendation. So many things influence making decisions that it would not be prudent to set hard, fast rules---much the same as using 2 flute as opposed to four flute end mills. In almost all cases, there's an exception to the rule. Making the right decision relies on having experience----experience that you get by making mistakes, and making observations.

Carbide is a bad choice for a light duty machine, one that is prone to chatter. It's death on carbide, as is irregular feed. Carbide is best applied with adequate horsepower and spindle speed, with a machine that is quite rigid. The exception might be if you are faced with machining abrasive materials ---such as fiber glass board---or castings with entrapped sand.

Cobalt adds heat resistance to cutting tools. Hot edge strength, if you will. You don't necessarily gain anything by it's use unless you push the cut--run the spindle somewhat faster than you otherwise might--or the material is hard and cuts hot. HSS, for machining mild steel, is perfectly adequate. That is not to say that cobalt won't serve, but in the case of drills, you have a much larger chisel point, so it is less effective in drilling materials that don't offer a challenge. I'd suggest that you make the decision based on your wallet and what you have on hand.

You can look at cutting tools much the same way you look at gasoline for your automobile. Premium gas is not better gas than regular---it simply offers different detonation characteristics----so you gain little, if anything, buy using the improper fuel. And so it goes with cutting tools.

Harold
Wise people talk because they have something to say. Fools talk because they have to say something.

kvom
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Re: Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

Post by kvom » Fri Dec 31, 2010 10:28 am

One aspect of only having a small mill is that I cannot work fast.
I have a large mill and still work slowly. :)

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gwrdriver
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Re: Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

Post by gwrdriver » Fri Dec 31, 2010 10:41 am

P,
An old rule of thumb for files and milling cutters is to use new ones for brass/brz/etc until they dull a bit then move them over for use on steel and they cut like new.
GWRdriver
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Pipescs
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Re: Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

Post by Pipescs » Sat Jan 01, 2011 12:49 pm

The four brass blocks for the link bracets are now shapped and squared up.

I must say I am becoming more proficient at squaring up material.

I am getting a lot of use out of the flycutter I purchased for the TAIG Mill.
Front Truck VI (5).jpg
I have marked out the areas to be relieved to ensure I come out with two left and two right brackets.

All that is left is to drill and tap the base for the 5-40 bolts, drill the pin hole and then remove the exess material to shape it.
Front Truck VI (8).jpg
The mounting bolts come up thru the frame sides into the brackets. The center plate is caught between them.
Charlie Pipes
USMC Retired

Current Projects:

2.5 Baldwin 2-4-2/2-4-4/0-4-4 Conversion (What ever)
Little Engines American Restoration
Bobber Caboose

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Pipescs
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Re: Beginners LE 4-4-0 American

Post by Pipescs » Sat Jan 01, 2011 12:55 pm

Before anyone asks, the two half inch mills under the block in the photo of the fly cutter are being used as half inch parallels to support the block of brass,

My vice jaws are one inch deep and I needed the part to be one half inch thick so they worked to support it.
Charlie Pipes
USMC Retired

Current Projects:

2.5 Baldwin 2-4-2/2-4-4/0-4-4 Conversion (What ever)
Little Engines American Restoration
Bobber Caboose

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